Українською | English

НАЗАДГОЛОВНА


UDK 339.138 : 339.5

 

I. A. Zlatova,

cand.sc. (econ.), Senior Lecturer, department of marketing

Odessa National Polytechnic University

 

EUROPEAN DIGITAL MARKETING MANAGEMENT TRENDS

 

І. О. Златова,

к. е. н., ст. викладач кафедри маркетингу

Одеського національного політехнічного університету

 

ЄВРОПЕЙСЬКІ ТЕНДЕНЦІЇ У СФЕРІ УПРАВЛІННЯ ЦИФРОВИМ МАРКЕТИНГОМ

 

The article describes the trends of e-commerce of the Europe, built on the results of monitoring of websites of following countries: Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Belgium, Finland, Denmark, Hungary, Switzerland, Bulgaria, Poland, Great Britain, Austria, Czech Republic, Portugal, Greece, Netherlands. It contains the results of monitoring of the most popular internet shops, accumulating the most often used methods of payment and delivery, competitive advantages, that are used in Europe. According to the most spread competitive advantages the map of consumer sensitivity was built. The article can be useful for Ukrainian enterprises, entering the European market in the form of internet shop or using instruments of digital marketing management.

 

У статті розглянуті тенденції розвитку електронної комерції в Європі за результатами моніторингу сайтів наступних країн: Німеччини, Франції, Італії, Іспанії, Швеції, Бельгії, Фінляндії, Данії, Угорщини, Швейцарії, Болгарії, Польщі, Великобританії, Австрії, Чехії, Португалії, Греції, Нідерландів. Стаття містить результати моніторингу найбільш популярних інтернет-магазинів, аналізу популярних методів оплати і доставки, конкурентних переваг, які використовуються в Європі. Відповідно до найбільш поширених конкурентних переваг була побудована карта чутливості споживача. Стаття може бути корисна для українських підприємств, що розглядають розширення бізнесу за рахунок європейського ринку у вигляді інтернет-магазину або за допомогою інструментів цифрового маркетингу.

 

Keywords: digital marketing, e-commerce of Europe, payment methods, delivery methods, marketing management.

 

Ключові слова: цифровий маркетинг, електронна комерція Європи, способи оплати, способи доставки, маркетинговий менеджмент.

 

 

Setting the problem.

Often digital marketing is associated with digital promotion tools, without considering all other elements of marketing mix: product, price and place. But the conversion rate of the project depends on the digital product, it’s benefits, usability and competitiveness. Understanding of product in digital marketing includes not only physical items, but digital platform, that attract consumers and collect traffic.

The analysis of recent research and publications.

Development of digital marketing included several stages:

1. Display advertising;

2. Search engine optimization;

3. Paid search;

4. Web Analytics and cookie;

5. Sharing and social media;

6. Mobile marketing;

7. E-mail marketing. [1]

These stages are digital marketing instruments at the same time. Different companies used only some of them, but big companies use them in complex. The most actual problem is choosing from wide range of digital marketing instruments and combining them into holistic effective complex of digital marketing. So modern stage of digital marketing development may be called the stage of digital marketing management or project management.

Europe - one of the largest e-commerce markets in the world. It became the platform of global e-commerce development. A lot of researches are focused on discovering which channels marketers rated as delivering the greatest ROI, this being the most critical metric for most marketing departments, and key to justifying further spend. Email marketing performed the best, with 76% saying it delivered medium to high cost effectiveness. Similar to last years survey, email was followed by SEO as the next most cost effective technique (72%). Interestingly, whilst AdWords came third in our survey last year, it has slipped to being the fourth most effective channel, as organic social media has risen to be perceived as moderately to highly effective by 68% of marketers. [5] E-commerce is about 2.2% of total European GDP, which provides 645,000 retail sites through the implementation of 3.7 billion transactions each year, creating about 2 million new jobs for Europeans. [2]

For marketers in Ukraine main difficulty in dealing with the European market is the legal framework. The complexity in terms of learning the e-commerce legislation, but at the same time the reason why the Ukrainian marketers are so popular in the West. Loyal tax environment in Ukraine and the low salaries of highly skilled marketers increase the interest from the side of some of European companies, which see benefits in the Ukrainian outsourcing.

Many sources claim that the European market is in a state of stagnation that all the market niches are occupied. Therefore, the growth of the company's performance in the European market often is possible using highly performance competitive advantages and the growth is possible because of competitors’ recession.

Setting the objective.

Managing digital budgets, marketers must consider the efficiency of any of them. The efficiency of digital promotion depends on the level of development of the project, it’s competitive benefits, that determine the conversion rate of each of the digital channels. European e-commerce is one of the most developed areas of digital marketing, so it became the objective of these research to predict the factors of growth and development of e-commerce in Ukraine.

The main material of research.

Europe has an annual turnover of 363.1 billion euros at the amount of population 816 million inhabitants. Of these, 565 million people use the Internet and 32% of the population are considered to be active online consumers who spend an average of € 1,376 per year for online shopping. Britain, France and Germany are leading European e-commerce. In 2015, they accounted for over 60% of all the transactions online in Eurasia. With a turnover of 157.1 billion euros, the UK leads on indicators on e-commerce B2C market, but in terms of the number of online shoppers, leading Germany - 51.6 million customers in the Internet, compared with 43.4 million customers in the UK. [3]

Let’s consider the difficulties, that could face each company entering the European market.

High level of competition. A large number of online stores and free trade between countries of the European Union have led to strengthening the position of e-shops in terms of price and non-price competitiveness. Consider the most popular competitive advantage in Europe:

1. Low price. Depending on the average level of income in the country varies the sensitivity of Internet users to the price. (Image 1)

 

Image 1. The percentage of users who prefer the lowest price levels [3]

 

 2. Delivery speed. The speed of delivery for Europe varies depending on the product, the availability of warehouse space at the company, the country's specific of geographical location. Europeans are willing to wait ordered goods, contrary to stereotypes, from 1-2 days to 1-2 weeks. (Image 2)

 

Image 2. The percentage of users who prefer websites with a faster delivery [3]

 

3. Secure payment and item return policy. For the Europeans is very important guarantee of security. Therefore, they always pay attention to the conditions of return of the goods if he does not like them or will not meet the expectations. The minimum term of return of goods is 14 days. Sometimes companies offer free goods return option within 30 days or more as a competitive advantage. Also popular service Safe order. This service is provided to users for a fee (3-6 euros) and makes it possible to return the product and get your money within 90-200 days. (Image 3)

 

Image 3. The percentage of people who are guided by conditions of return and exchange of goods during purchase [3]

 

The security of payment and shopping as a whole is considered one of the most important features to make a decision of a purchase. So that the main part of online shops prefer to get an independent certificates of secure shopping.

According to the sensitivity of the user to the price, terms of delivery and return of goods policy a map of users’ sensitivity to the benefits of an online store was built.

 

Image 4. Map of consumer sensitivity

 

It indirectly indicates the level of competition in the field of e-commerce.

The most demanding in terms of Internet shopping are buyers from Italy and Poland, the least demanding - the inhabitants of Norway, Sweden and Denmark.

The next specific character of European e-commerce is a variety of payment and delivery methods. Online shops of European countries were checked to determine the most spread methods of payment and delivery. Sufficient difficulty in the course of development of markets is a variety of payment methods and shipping.

Table 1 lists the most popular payment methods in European countries.

 

Table 1.

Payment methods that support online shopping in Europe

Country

Methods of payment

Methods of shipment

Germany

PayPal

DPD

PayPal Express

DHL

Credit cards (Visa, MasterCard, American Express)

UPS

Invoice

Hermes

Sofort

GLS

Bank Transfer

 

C.O.D.

 

Giropay

 

Klarna

 

Amazonpayments

 

Lastschrift

 

France

PayLib

TNT

PayPal

Relay

Credit cards

Colis prive

Bank transfer

Relais colis

Be2bill

Livraison Belgique

CarteBleue (credit-deposit card)

Home delivery

Carte Aurore

Same day express

Cofinoga

Click and Collect

E.bleue

 

Solo

 

Delta

 

Discover (Credit card)

 

Spain

C.O.D.

Correos express

Credit Cards

Azkar

Pago directo

KIALA

EURO 6000

SEUR

PayPal

 

Bank Transfer (BBVA, bankinter, Banco Santander, Sabadell, Bankia, Banco popular)

 

Serviredo

 

Deposit Cards

 

Italy

Cartasi

BRT

PayPal

 

Postepay

 

Bank Transfer 

 

Sofort

 

Credit Cards

 

C.O.D.

 

Diners club

 

Deposit Cards

 

Aura

 

Sweden

Bank Transfer  (Nordea, SEB, Handelsbanken, Swedbank, SHB)

DB Schenker Logistics

PayPal

Posten AB

Credit Cards

Fedex

Invoice

 

Trustly

 

Klarna

 

Denmark

Bank Transfer (Nordea, DanskeBank)

Post Danmark

PayPal

GLS PakkeShop

Credit cards

DB Schenker Logistics

Klarna

 

Invoice

 

Be2bill

 

Diners club

 

JCB

 

Payex

 

Norway

Invoice

posten

PayPal

DPD

Credit Cards

 

Klarna

 

Bank Transfer  (Danskebank, Sparebank)

 

Bankaxess

 

Nets technology

 

EWIRE

 

DNB

 

TERRA

 

Netherland

Afterpay

Postnl

Ideal

 

Paypal

 

Credit Cards

 

Klarna

 

Overschrijving

 

Acceptgiro

 

Betalen contant

 

Buckaroo-payments

 

Great Britain

Bank Transfer

DHL

PayPal

UPS

Credit Cards

GLS

Deposit Cards

 

Delta

 

Diners club

 

EuroCard

 

Solo

 

Sage pay

 

Austria

EPS

 

PayPal

 

Credit Cards

 

Klarna

 

Sofortüberweisung

 

Bank Transfer

 

Invoice

 

Switzerland

Bank Transfer

Posfinance

Sofort

 

Postfinance

 

Credit Cards

 

Paypal

 

Invoice

 

Athleticum

 

Jumbo

 

MyOne

 

Dinners

 

Eurocard

 

Finland

Paytrail

 

Bank Transfer

 

Credit Cards

 

PayPal

 

Klarna

 

C.O.D.

 

S-Pankki

 

Jousto

 

Handelsbanken

 

Aktia

 

Diners

 

JCB

 

Danskebank

 

POP Pankki

 

Lahitapiola

 

OP

 

Nordea

 

Portugal

Bank Transfer

 

Paypal

 

Credit Cards

 

Easypay

 

C.O.D.

 

Netcaixa online

 

Red compra

 

Web pay plus

 

Diners

 

Magna

 

Skrill

 

Dinero Mail

 

Bulgaria

C.O.D.

DHL

Paypal

UPS

Credit Cards

GLS

Easypay

 

Bank Transfer

 

Borika

 

Webmoney

 

ePay.bg

 

EUROLINE

 

TBICredit

 

Delta

 

MJy Rewards

 

Webmoney

 

Czech Republic

C.O.D.

DHL

Paypal

GLS

Credit Cards

UPS

Bank Transfer

 

JCB

 

PPL

 

GoPay

 

Payment SMS

 

GP webpay

 

m-Platba

 

Mobito

 

CardPay

 

AMEX

 

Greece

eWallet

DHL

PayPal

UPS

Bank Transfer

GLS

Credit Cards

 

C.O.D.

 

Bitcoin

 

EUROLINE

 

diners

 

PaysafeCard

 

Hungary

Budapest bank

DHL

PayPal

UPS

Credit cards

GLS

First data

 

Magyar Posta belfold

 

Romania

Pay U

 

paypal

 

Credit Cards

 

PCI

 

C.O.D.

 

Star BT

 

Bonus card

 

Bank transfer

 

Avantaj

 

Mobilpay

 

Poland

C.O.D.

GLS

PayPal

UPS

Credit Cards

DHL

Przelewy

 

Банковский перевод

 

Dotpay

 

Diners

 

Payment by installments

 

PayU

 

 

Conclusions and further research.

Digital marketing management is strongly connected with project management. Knowledge of project, understanding the digital product, wide range of shipment and payment methods are key factors of growing conversion rates. Further research of consumer demand must be connected with the research of independent certification of online shops and the influence of trusted icons on the conversion rate.

 

Literature.

1. Avantika Monnappa, The history and evolution of Digital Marketing, [Online], available at: https://www.simplilearn.com/history-and-evolution-of-digital-marketing-article (Accessed 8 Jan 2017).

2. Chris Leone, How Much Should You Budget For Marketing In 2017? [Online], available at:   http://www.webstrategiesinc.com/blog/how-much-budget-for-online-marketing-in-2014  (Accessed 8 Jan 2017).

3. Ecommerce Europe Infographics, [Online], available at:  http://www.ecommerce-europe.eu/research/infographics/  (Accessed 8 Jan 2017).

4. E-commerce in Europe 2015, [Online], available at:  http://www.postnord.com/globalassets/global/english/document/publications/2015/en_e-commerce_in_europe_20150902.pdf (Accessed 8 Jan 2017).

5. Managing Digital Marketing 2016, [Online], available at:   http://bahardigital.ir/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/managing-digital-marketing-smart-insights.pdf (Accessed 8 Jan 2017).

 

Стаття надійшла до редакції 09.01.2017 р.

 

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