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НАЗАДГОЛОВНА


УДК 338.2

 

A. A. Polubiedova,

PhD (Economics) , Associate Professor Department of Sociology and Psychology of Management,

Simon Kuznets Kharkiv National University of Economics, Kharkiv

S. M. Golubiev,

Lecturer, Department of Sociology and Psychology of Management,

Simon Kuznets Kharkiv National University of Economics, Kharkiv

 

METHODOLOGICAL SUPPORT FOR DIAGNOSIS OF LEADER’S SOCIAL COMPETENCE

 

А. О. Полубєдова,

к. е. н., доцент кафедри соціології та психології управління,

Харківський національний економічний університет імені Семена Кузнеця, м. Харків

С. М. Голубєв,

Викладач, кафедра соціології та психології управління,

Харківський національний економічний університет імені Семена Кузнеця, м. Харків

 

МЕТОДИКА ДІАГНОСТИКИ СОЦІАЛЬНОЇ КОМПЕТЕНТНОСТІ КЕРІВНИКА

 

А. А. Полубедова,

к. э. н., доцент кафедры социологии и психологии управления,

Харьковский национальный экономический университет имени Семена Кузнеца, г. Харьков

С. Н. Голубев,

Преподаватель кафедры социологии и психологии управления,

Харьковский национальный экономический университет имени Семена Кузнеца, г. Харьков

 

МЕТОДИКА ДИАГНОСТИКИ СОЦИАЛЬНОЙ КОМПЕТЕНТНОСТИ РУКОВОДИТЕЛЯ

 

Based on a literature review, the nature and content of such a term as «the manager’s social competence» have been defined. The following features characteristic of a successful leader in the field of interaction were substantiated and determined: the manager communicates not only for formal reasons related to the organization’s work process; supports emotional connection with a partner showing his or her personal attitude to the partner; is aware of the particular features of the he/she works with; inspires confidence and sympathy; is always ready to communicate and communicates with energy; establishes a network of informal connections; his/her ideas fascinate others and he/she urges others to follow him/her; forms a group of like-minded people. The study of theoretical aspects related to the formation of social competence allowed to define its substantive features: relativity depending on internal conditions and needs of the external environment, and compromise between the desires of the team and the manager’s needs.

A method to diagnose the condition of the manager’s social competence is described. The 360 degrees method involving a three-component assessment of the manager’s characteristics: self-evaluation, evaluation by employees and his/her supervisor. The following key components of the manager’s social competence are suggested: cognitive, emotional and related to activities and practice. The development of each component using training means provides the basis for the development of the manager’s social competence.

 

На основі аналізу літератури визначено сутність та зміст поняття «соціальна компетентність менеджера». Обґрунтовані та визначені риси, що притаманні успішним керівникам в області взаємодії, а саме: менеджер спілкується не лише з формальних приводів, пов'язаних з технологією роботи організації; підтримує емоційний контакт з партнером, проявляючи своє особистісне ставлення до нього; добре знає особливості людей, з якими доводиться працювати; викликає довіру і симпатію; завжди готовий до спілкування і енергійний у спілкуванні; встановлює мережу неформальних зв'язків; захоплює своїми ідеями, переконує слідувати за ним; збирає навколо себе команду однодумців. Дослідження теоретичних аспектів формування соціальної компетентності дозволило визначити її змістовні особливості: відносність, визначається в залежності від внутрішніх умов та потреб зовнішнього середовища, та компроміснисть, що пов’язана з компромісом між бажаннями колективу та потребами керівника.

Наведена методика діагностики стану соціальної компетентності керівника. Запропоновано використовувати метод «360 градусів», який передбачає оцінку якостей менеджера з 3 сторін: самооцінка, оцінки підлеглих та його керівника. Пропонується виділяти такі ключові складові соціальної компетентності керівника: когнітивна, емоційна та діяльнісно-практична. Розвиток кожної зі складових за допомогою тренінгових заходів створює основу розвитку соціальної компетентності керівника.

 

На основе анализа литературы определена сущность и содержание понятия «социальная компетентность менеджера». Обоснованы и определены черты, присущие успешным руководителям в области взаимодействия, а именно: менеджер общается не только по формальным вопросам, связанные с технологией работы организации; поддерживает эмоциональный контакт с партнером, проявляя свое личностное отношение к нему; хорошо знает особенности людей, с которыми приходится работать; вызывает доверие и симпатию; всегда готов к общению и энергичный в общении; устанавливает неформальные связей; захватывает своими идеями, убеждает следовать за ним; собирает вокруг себя команду единомышленников. Исследование теоретических аспектов формирования социальной компетентности позволило определить ее содержательные особенности: относительность, определяется в зависимости от внутренних условий и потребностей внешней среды, и компромис, связаный с компромиссом между желаниями коллектива и потребностями руководителя.

Представлена методика диагностики состояния социальной компетентности руководителя. Предложено использовать метод «360 градусов», который предусматривает оценку качеств менеджера с 3 сторон: самооценка, оценки подчиненных и руководителя. Предлагается выделять ключевые составляющие социальной компетентности руководителя: когнитивная, эмоциональная и деятельно-практическая. Развитие каждой из составляющих с помощью тренинговых мероприятий создает основу развития социальной компетентности руководителя.

 

Ключові слова: соціальна компетентність, менеджер, керівник, метод «360 градусів».

 

Key words: social competence, manager, the 360 degrees method.

 

Ключевые слова: социальная компетентность, менеджер, руководитель, метод «360 градусов».

 

 

Introduction. The key to successful and effective work of a head is his ability to find a common language with subordinates, divide responsibilities among them and perform the control of their work. The head is often forced to resolve conflicts in the team, to establish an emotional connection between subordinates. The effective implementation of these responsibilities is provided by the social competence of the head. It is a set of social knowledge and skills that enable the individual to interact effectively and responsibly in a team to solve their tasks. This competence is a key part of the professional activity of a manager, because his work is directly related to the organization of interaction of subordinates for the formation and development of their total capacity.

Aim. On the basis of the material it is possible to formulate the task of the research, which is to determine the essence and content of social competence of the head. Studying methods for its diagnosis is also an important task.

The main part. R. Goffee notes that subordinates' need for something more, they need to see a man who is sincerely worried about the fate of the people and their common cause [1]. The leader is perceived as a person having authority and causes trust, which depends on several factors. Honesty and reliability of the person in the eyes of the audience, his loyalty to his word is important. Employees have more confidence in the person with whom they straight communicate. People do not like to deal with abstract leadership, they want to deal with a specific person. After all, the most effective communication is informal, face to face. Thus, we can identify a number of significant features that characterize a successful manager in the field of interaction. They are:

- communication not only on business performance;

- support emotional contact with a partner, showing his personal attitude;

- getting to know the people with whom he has to work; creating the atmosphere of trust and sympathy;

- readiness to communicate; establishing a network of informal relations;

- being convincing;

- putting together a team of like-minded people.

These signs of the head as the subject of interpersonal interactions are closely related to the concept of leadership. The problem of organization and regulation of interpersonal relations makes it necessary to study the qualities of the leader, because the leader is able to captivate people, cause their emotional response and enthusiasm in achieving the organization's goals using their personal resources. Developed by modern science the notion of social competence allows to combine different approaches to the analysis of professionally significant qualities of the manager. Scientists who examine social competence, ambiguously determine its contents. Thus, D. Pochebut considers social competence of the manager as its ability to constructive use of social knowledge and skills necessary for successful establishment of a system of social relations, both formal and informal, allowing to influence others, necessary to perform professional activities [2].

S. Krasnokutskaya believes that social competence is the possession of techniques of joint activities, communication and leadership, initiative and social responsibility [3]. N. Bedenko emphasizes that social competence is a set of specific personal traits, abilities, social skills and knowledge, subjective readiness for self-determination of a person, it provides the integration into society through the productive performance of various social roles [4]. Pedagogues perceive social competence as a person's ability to take responsibility and make decisions, participate in joint decision-making, productively interact with other cultures and religions. W. Pfingsten, H. Hershgen, R. Hintch determine the manager situational specificity, the orientation of the target and purposive rational behavior as the most significant characteristics of the social competence. In essence, this means that social competence is based on the ability of the manager in some circumstances and situations to achieve the goals and implement plans tailored to the situational characteristics, needs and points of view of different subjects of professional activities involved in the social and professional interaction [5]. We can distinguish two substantial features of social competence:

relativity – it can only be determined relatively, depending on the needs of the environment and the circumstances and potential of the head;

compromise nature – social competence is associated with a compromise between the desires and needs of the head [6].

Taking into account these features it can be argued that the social competence of the head on the one hand, is mastered manager for certain situations and it is often difficult to transfer to other situations. On the other hand, it is associated with the personality of the manager and therefore has "suprasituational" character. W. Pfingsten and R. Hintch offer to solve this contradiction, considering the social competence to be not only the use of a certain capacity (total, not depending on the situation or personality traits)  but also the realization of social readiness, which is applied to specific situations.

Management activities are largely dependent on management's ability to successfully solve problems (business and personal)  and conflicts among groups with different social structure. In connection with this readiness of the manager to expand and develop their social competence gets special importance.

In addition, it should be noted that social competence is not always associated with the socially oriented concessions (assistance, administrative assistance, etc.) . On the contrary the efficiency of social competence is related to the individual objectives of subjects’ work. It is caused by the ability of managers in certain conditions and situations to achieve their goals, taking into account the features of the situation and needs of stakeholders. On the basis of these definitions taking into account the purpose of the study the social competence of the head can be defined as a set of social knowledge, skills and abilities that allow managers to communicate effectively in a team depending on the situation, in order to solve the tasks they face.

In the literature, there are different approaches to determining the structure of social competence of the head. So, I. Zimniaya identifies the following components [7]:

willingness to exercise competence (motivational aspect) ; possession of the knowledge of the content of competence (cognitive aspect) ;

experience in the manifestation of competence in different situations (behavioral aspect) ;

relevancy to the content of competence and its application object (value-semantic aspect) ;

emotional and volitional regulation of the process and the results of manifestation of competence (emotional and volitional aspect) .

V. Myasischev believes that social competence of the manager is to be considered on three interrelated levels (aspects)  [8]:

their interaction – emotional and volitional regulation of the manager;

colleagues (group)  interaction – communicative abilities of the manager;

staff (community)  interaction – sociall responsibility of the manager.

H. Hershgen in his study proves that it is sufficient to distinguish three interrelated levels (aspect)  in the structure of social competence, which can be described as the substructure:

cognitive – reflects a realistic perception of oneself and the environment, the efficient collection and processing of information, etc.;

emotional – adequate formation and expression of feelings;

connotative – verbal and nonverbal abilities and their use [9].

D. Pochebut also uses such classification [2]. He identifies:

sensual component, which synthesizes identity and self-control as the ability to recognize and understand your own moods, emotions, and desire and the ability to manage them, steering destructive impulses and emotions into the necessary channel;

intellectual component that reproduces the ability to understand the relationship between emotional reactions of individuals and events in their lives;

social skills, which are manifested in a timely and adequate response to emotional reactions of people, the ability to find suitable contact and rapport with communication partner, to organize human relations.

Generalizing these approaches it is possible to distinguish the following classification:

Intellectual (cognitive)  is manifested in the understanding of the causes and consequences of certain actions. The head is important to be able to recognize if the internal causes, for example, prevented subordinate from performing tasks, whether it were objective reasons (lack of time, resources, etc.)  or subjective (laziness, inability to concentrate on the job) , and, on this basis, to build him further interaction.

Emotional and volitional (sensual)  component manifests as the ability to manage their emotions and understand the emotions of others and to use them to achieve the result. It also joins empathy as the ability to feel the emotional state of another person and feel the reasons for this situation.

Interactive (activities and practical)  component is manifested in practical communication skills, ability to interact with others, to organize communication and dialogue, and the like. In addition, it provides the motivation and ability to the head to cause desire and enthusiasm of subordinates, desire to move towards the goals, both for himself and subordinates.

These components are closely linked, that’s why several components may occur in certain management skills. For example, the ability to form and work as a team include: knowledge of the rules of team building and organization of work in it (cognitive component) , understanding emotions of the team members and the ability to show adequately his own (emotional component)  and possession of skills of teamwork, promote mutual trust and team (interactive component) .

To diagnose the state of social competence of the head is advisable to use the survey method, namely the survey, in which the evaluation of the following characteristic is proposed:

the ability to delegate authority and responsibility;

the ability to gather information;

the head authoritativeness extent;

the ability to captivate people;

the ability to build a team and work in it; the ability to motivate and encourage;

the ability to manage conflicts.

These characteristics make it possible to assess the ability of the manager to perform the administrative work. To increase objectivity of the diagnosis, it is advisable to evaluate the proposed quality by the method of "360 degrees". The head of the collective estimates these characteristics, his subordinates evaluate him and his head evaluates him. For the development of social competence within the designated structures it is necessary to focus on solving problems in the following areas:

Cognitive – developent of knowledge in the field of social relations and social psychology;

Emotional – the formation of evaluative and emotional attitude to oneself, the object of interaction and communication in professional activities;

Active and practical – the practical implementation of the models and methods of communication and interaction.

Generalization of the literature has shown that for the development of social competence of the manager it is advisable to implement a variety of training programs for the development of cognitive, emotional, cultural and interactive components of social competence. Positive results are also provided by professionally organized discussions, team seminars, various techniques aimed at the development of self-regulation and other interactive methods.

Conclusion. Social competence of the head is a set of social knowledge, skills and abilities that allow him to interact effectively with employees in a particular situation to solve their tasks. In the structure of social competence can be distinguished intellectual (cognitive) , emotional and volitional (sensual) , interactive (active and practical)  components. Training programs generate the basis of development of the team leader competence in the field of social relations and social psychology, formation of evaluative and emotional relations, ability to practically implementation the models and methods of subordinate communication.

 

References:

1.

Goffi, R. and Dzhons, G. (2005), Kak stat' priznannym liderom [How to become a recognized leader], Al'pina Biznes Buks, Moscow, Russia, p.232.

2.

Pochebut, D. A. (2007), "Social'naja kompetentnost' sovremennogo menedzhera: ponjatie i mesto v professional'noj dejatel'nosti", Vestnik juzhno-ural'skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Serija: Obrazovanie, zdravoohranenie, fizicheskaja kul'tura, vol. 26, pp. 94–101.

3.

Krasnokutskaja, S. N. (2005), "Social'naja kompetentnost' kak kachestvennaja harakteristika processa socializacii studentov",  Sbornik nauchnyh trudov Severo-Kavkazskogo gosudarstvennogo tehnicheskogo universiteta. Serija «Gumanitarnye nauki», vol. 1 (13) ,  [Online], available at: http://www.ncstu.ru.

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Bedenko, N. N. (2004), "Social'naja kompetentnost' lichnosti v sovremennoj urbanisticheskoj kul'ture", Abstract of Ph.D. dissertation, 09.00.11, Tver', Russia, p.144.

5.

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6.

Kalugina, T. G. and Tereshhuk, N. I. (2006), "Sushhnostnye harakteristiki i strukturnye komponenty social'noj kompetentnosti menedzherov", Vestnik Cheljabinskogo universiteta. –  Ser. 8, Jekonomika. Sociologija. Social'naja rabota, vol. 5, pp. 91–95.

7.

Zimnjaja, I. A. (2004), Kljuchevye kompetentnosti kak rezul'tativno-celevaja osnova kompetentnostnogo podhoda v obrazovanii : avtorskaja versija [Key competence as effectively-target competency-based approach to education: the author's version], Issledovatel'skij centr problem kachestva podgotovki specialistov, Moscow, Russia, p.40.

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Стаття надійшла до редакції 19.08.2015 р.

 

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